“In spite of raving nationalism [1860-70s], these men felt, the true spirit of the times was l’esprit d’internationalité. The progress of humanity went from independence to interdependence, from patriotism to international solidarity. If ‘nationalism’ served kings and dynasties, ‘internationalism’ served peoples and democracy; if the first was the driving force of polarization, the other was the best incentive to co-operation. If the one meant war, the other meant peace, if the one barracks, the other wealth.”